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RadioPharmaceuticals

Gallium-68 Generator (Ge-68/Ga-68) (PET)

The Ga-68 generator uses a glass column with TiO2 sorbent to fix Ge-68, which decays to produce Ga-68. It is placed in a lead container and 0.1 M HCI is used to elute the Ga-68.

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Sodium molybdate (Mo-99) 2.5- 60 GBq corresponding to Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) 2 - 50 GBq, radionuclide generator

A technetium-99m generator, also known as a technetium, is a device used to extract the metastable isotope 99mTc of technetium from a decaying sample of molybdenum-99. 99Mo has a half-life of 66 hours[1] and can be transported over long distances to hospitals where its decay product technetium-99m is extracted and used for a variety of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures.

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Tc-99m Generator

Rhenium-188 is a beta-emitter with a 16.98-hour half-life, it may form complexes. It allows synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostics and therapy of malignant tumors, bone metastases, rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases. The parent isotope is Tungsten-188.

The advantage of this generator is the presence of both beta- and gamma- radiation components (0.155 MeV); the first of these ensures a high therapeutic effect and the second one enables the operators to receive visual information in conventional gamma-cameras.

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Rhenium

Characteristics

Manufacturing enterprise: IPPE.
Parent isotope's activity: 3,7; 5,5; 7,4; 18,5; 37,0 GBq.
Generator's weight: 16 kg (without package).
Lifetime: 40, 80, 110, 150, 200 days (depending on the generator's type).

Technical advantages

  • Short half-life period of Re-188 (17 hours) makes it safer for patients, staff and environment.

  • The presence of mean energy β-emission provides an optimal therapeutic dose for affecting pathology focus (tumors and other).

  • The presence of a γ-component with the energy of 155 keV in the emission spectrum makes it possible to monitor the behavior of the labeled pharmaceutical in the patient's body using SPECT.

  • Produced under Radiation Safety Standards-2009/2010.

  • The half-life period of parent W-188 radionuclide (69,4 days) makes it possible to use one generator within 6 to 12 months (depending on the generator rated activity).

Lutetium-177

Lutetium-177 is a radioactive isotope used in cancer treatment and imaging, with a short half-life, high yield and purity, and the ability to target specific cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Characteristics:

  • Lu-177 is a beta-emitting radioisotope with a half-life of 6.7 days.

  • It emits beta particles with an average energy of 134 keV and a maximum energy of 497 keV, which allows for effective tumor irradiation with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

  • Lu-177 can be produced via nuclear reactions using a cyclotron or nuclear reactor, and it is typically obtained by irradiating a stable isotope of lutetium with neutrons.

Technical advantages:

  • Lu-177 can be conjugated with various targeting agents, such as peptides, antibodies, or small molecules, to selectively deliver the radioactive payload to cancer cells expressing the corresponding receptor or antigen.

  • Lu-177 has a relatively short range in tissue (maximum of 1.7 mm), which enables selective killing of cancer cells with minimal collateral damage to normal tissues.

  • Lu-177 has a high yield and purity, and it can be conveniently radiolabeled with various chelators for stable complexation with targeting agents.

  • Lu-177 has a lower radiation exposure to medical staff and the environment compared to other therapeutic radionuclides, such as iodine-131 or yttrium-90.

Medical applications:

  • Lu-177 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) for the treatment of various cancer types, such as neuroendocrine tumors, prostate cancer, and metastatic bone pain.

  • In TRT, Lu-177 is administered systemically to the patient, and it accumulates preferentially in the tumor tissue, where it delivers its beta radiation and induces DNA damage and cell death.

  • Lu-177 TRT has shown high response rates, durable remissions, and improved quality of life in several clinical trials, especially in patients with limited therapeutic options or resistant disease.

  • Lu-177 can also be used in imaging applications, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET), when labeled with suitable imaging agents.

Gallium-68 Generator (Ge-68/Ga-68) (PET)

Nuclear medicine produces the positron-emitting radionuclide Ga-68 using a Ge-68/Ga-68 generator. With a half-life of 270.95 days, the parent isotope Ge-68 can be easily transported to hospitals as a generator and used there as the source of Ga-68 for at least a year. Gallium-68 can be readily eluted from the generator at any time at the site of application and is useful for a variety of things despite having a short half-life of only 67.71 minutes and being difficult to transport.

The Ga-68 generator uses a glass column with TiO2 sorbent to fix Ge-68, which decays to produce Ga-68. It is placed in a lead container and 0.1 M HCI is used to elute the Ga-68.

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Technical advantages

  • The elute of Gallium-68 is 0.1 M HCI.

  • Ga-68 yield in 5 ml of eluent is at least 75 % at the first run and at least 45% throughout 3 years or after 400 elutions.

  • The breakthrough of Ge-68 is not more than 0.005 %.

  • The column is placed into a lead security container of the KSU-2NZH-M generator standard set.

  • The generator is certified in the certification system for equipment, products and technologies for nuclear installations, radiation sources and storage (OIT-certification system).

Application

Ga-68 obtained from this generator can be used for PET systems calibration, for making phantoms and for the development of labeling technique.

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Tekcis® (SPECT)

Sodium molybdate (Mo-99) 2.5- 60 GBq corresponding to Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) 2 - 50 GBq, radionuclide generator

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A technetium-99m generator, also known as a moly cow or technetium cow, is a device used to extract the metastable isotope 99mTc of technetium from a decaying sample of molybdenum-99. 99Mo has a half-life of 66 hours[1] and can be transported over long distances to hospitals where its decay product technetium-99m is extracted and used for a variety of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures.

Rhenium

Rhenium-188 is a beta-emitter with a 16.98-hour half-life, it may form complexes. It allows synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostics and therapy of malignant tumors, bone metastases, rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases. The parent isotope is Tungsten-188.

The advantage of this generator is the presence of both beta- and gamma- radiation components (0.155 MeV); the first of these ensures a high therapeutic effect and the second one enables the operators to receive visual information in conventional gamma-cameras.

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Characteristics

Manufacturing enterprise: IPPE.
Parent isotope's activity: 3,7; 5,5; 7,4; 18,5; 37,0 GBq.
Generator's weight: 16 kg (without package).
Lifetime: 40, 80, 110, 150, 200 days (depending on the generator's type).

Technical advantages

  • Short half-life period of Re-188 (17 hours) makes it safer for patients, staff and environment.

  • The presence of mean energy β-emission provides an optimal therapeutic dose for affecting pathology focus (tumors and other).

  • The presence of a γ-component with the energy of 155 keV in the emission spectrum makes it possible to monitor the behavior of the labeled pharmaceutical in the patient's body using SPECT.

  • Produced under Radiation Safety Standards-2009/2010.

  • The half-life period of parent W-188 radionuclide (69,4 days) makes it possible to use one generator within 6 to 12 months (depending on the generator rated activity).

Lutetium-177

Lutetium-177 is a radioactive isotope used in cancer treatment and imaging, with a short half-life, high yield and purity, and the ability to target specific cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Characteristics:

  • Lu-177 is a beta-emitting radioisotope with a half-life of 6.7 days.

  • It emits beta particles with an average energy of 134 keV and a maximum energy of 497 keV, which allows for effective tumor irradiation with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

  • Lu-177 can be produced via nuclear reactions using a cyclotron or nuclear reactor, and it is typically obtained by irradiating a stable isotope of lutetium with neutrons.

Technical advantages:

  • Lu-177 can be conjugated with various targeting agents, such as peptides, antibodies, or small molecules, to selectively deliver the radioactive payload to cancer cells expressing the corresponding receptor or antigen.

  • Lu-177 has a relatively short range in tissue (maximum of 1.7 mm), which enables selective killing of cancer cells with minimal collateral damage to normal tissues.

  • Lu-177 has a high yield and purity, and it can be conveniently radiolabeled with various chelators for stable complexation with targeting agents.

  • Lu-177 has a lower radiation exposure to medical staff and the environment compared to other therapeutic radionuclides, such as iodine-131 or yttrium-90.

Medical applications:

  • Lu-177 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) for the treatment of various cancer types, such as neuroendocrine tumors, prostate cancer, and metastatic bone pain.

  • In TRT, Lu-177 is administered systemically to the patient, and it accumulates preferentially in the tumor tissue, where it delivers its beta radiation and induces DNA damage and cell death.

  • Lu-177 TRT has shown high response rates, durable remissions, and improved quality of life in several clinical trials, especially in patients with limited therapeutic options or resistant disease.

  • Lu-177 can also be used in imaging applications, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET), when labeled with suitable imaging agents.

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